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Critical path method

Critical path method

critical path method

critical path method

Critical Path : is a combination of activities that, if any are delayed, will delay the project’s finish date.

Purpose of critical path method:

1. To calculate the project’s finish date.

2. To identify how much individual activities in schedule can slip with delaying project

3. To identify the activities with the highest risk that cannot slip without changing the project finish date.

Float Calculation using CPM

● Float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project end date.

● Float is always Zero on Critical Path activities.

● Critical Path is longest path of network diagram.

a

Each activity have same box

ES : Early Start

EF : Early Finish

LS: Late Start

LF : Late Finish

Float = LS-ES or LF-EF

Float Calculation

Late Start(LS) – Early Start(ES)

OR

Late Finish(LF) – Early Finish (EF)

Example

You are the project manager of project at SkillsMag and following activities are identified along with the activity effort.

Project A
Activity Preceding  Activity Duration (Wks)
Start None 0
A Start 1
B Start 3
C Start 5
D A 9
E B,C 2
F C 3
G D 4
H E 8
I F 2
End G,H,I 0

First  prepare schedule network Diagram

network diagram

network diagram

Step 2:

Calculate the ES and EF of each activity using forward pass technique.

Remember the following formulas for calculation.

Early Start (ES) = Early Finish(EF) of Predecessor activity. If no predecessor activity exists then 0.

Early Finish (EF) = Early Start (ES) + Activity Duration

Activity E is highlighted as it has 2 predecessor activities. we take higher one.

network diagram

network diagram

Step 3:

Under this technique, we will start calculating the value from last activities on the path i.e. from G,H and I.

Thumb Rule : Take highest EF.

Our case we have EF 15 is highest for activity H.

The formula for LS(Late start) is

Late Start (LS) = Late Finish – Activity Duration

Activity c has 2 successor activity,take lowest one.

network diagram

network diagram

Step 4 : Float calculation

float

float

 

1

Project Integration management

Project Integration management

Project integration management

Project integration management

Project Integration management is main responsibility of project manager. Here project manager has to do high level of project work and balancing between different processes.

[box] As per PMBOK®

“Project Integration management includes the process and activities need to be identify, define, combine, unify and coordinate the various process and project management activities within the project management process groups.”[/box]

Figure given Below shows project integration management processes and their respective process groups

Project integration management Process group (done during )
Develop project charter Initiating
Develop project management plan Planning
Direct &manage project work Executing
Monitor  & control project work Monitoring and controlling
Perform integration change control Monitoring and controlling
Close project or phase Closing

 

Let’s have better understanding for each process of integration management.

Develop Project Charter:

This is very first part of integration management.

Develop Project Charter
  Inputs

1.       Project Statement of work

2.       Business case

3.       Agreements

4.       Enterprise environmental factors

5.       Organizational process assets

 Tool  and Techniques

1.   Expert judgement

2.   facilitation techniques

Outputs

1.       Project charter

 

 

[box]As per PMBOK®

“Develop project Charter is the process of developing a document that formally authorize a project or a phase and documenting initial requirement that satisfy the stakeholder need and expectation. ”[/box]

Project charter should be developed by project sponsor, Customer, PMO or they can delegate duty to Project manager.

Project Manager is assigned in this process.

It formally authorizes the project.

Now let’s have a look on input, tool & technique and outputs of project charter

Inputs

Project statement of work:

[box]As per PMBOK®

“The statement of work (SOW) is a narrative description of product or a services to be delivered by project.” [/box]

The project statement of work contains

  • Business need
  • Product description
  • Strategic plan

Business case:

Business case provides necessary information from business point of view whether project is feasible or not.

Business case is created based on one of following points

  1. Market demand
  2. Organizational need
  3. Customer request
  4. Technological advance
  5. Legal requirement
  6. Ecological impact
  7. Social need

Agreements:

When working for external customer the contract is used as an input.

Enterprise environmental factors:

Enterprise environmental factors that can affect the development of project charter.That can be

  1. Government & industry standards
  2. Organizational infrastructure
  3. Marketplace condition
  4. Environment of project

Organization Process assets:

The organizational process assets that can effect development of project charter process may contain Organization standard process, Templates, Historical information and lesson learned and knowledge base.

Tool & Techniques

  1. Expert judgement

Expert judgement technique is used in every integration management process.

In this judgement is provided based on expertise by expert person of their fields.

They can be individuals, subject matter expert (SME), Consultant, stakeholder or group(s).

 

  1. Facilitation techniques

Brainstorming, managing meetings and keeping them on track, resolving conflict, and resolving problems are part of facilitation techniques. These techniques are used by facilitator.

Outputs

  1. Project Charter

Project Charter is final outcome of develop project process. It provides summary of project.

Project Charter contains following things

  1. Project proposal or justification
  2. Summary budget
  3. Summary milestone
  4. High level or requirements
  5. High level of project risks
  6. Measurable success criteria
  7. Assigned project manager.

project management plan

project management plan

 

Project management plan is master plan for project. It is developed once project charter is approved.

[box] “Develop project management plan is process of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate and coordinate all subsidiary plans. The project management plan define how the project is executed, monitored & controlled and closed.”[/box]

It integrates all the knowledge area. It also include baseline of project. Project baseline once defined can only be change through perform integrated change control process.

To develop successful project plan one should have following skills.

  • Negotiation
  • Leadership
  • Active listing
  • Brainstorming
  • Communication skills
  • Conflict resolution

 

Develop project Management plan
Inputs

·         Project Charter

·         Output from planning process

·         Enterprise environment factor

·         Organizational process assets

Tool & Techniques

·         Expert judgement

·         Facilitation techniques

Output

·         Project Management plan

 

Inputs

 

Project Charter: Please click here to see more about project charter.

Output from planning process:

Information from other planning processes help to develop project  plan.

Table below shows various planning process

Scope management plan
Requirement management plan
Project scope statement
Scope baseline
Schedule management plan
Schedule baseline
Cost management plan
Cost performance baseline
Quality management plan
Process improvement plan
Human resource plan
Communication management plan
Risk management plan
Procurement management plan
Stakeholder management plan

 

Enterprise environment factors: Please click here to see more about Enterprise environment factors.

Organizational process assets: Please click here to see more about Organizational process assets.

 

Tools and Technique:

 

Expert judgement

Expert judgement technique is used in every integration management process. In this judgement provided based on expertise by expert person of their fields. They can be individuals, subject matter expert (SME), Consultant, stakeholder or group(s).

 

Facilitation techniques

Brainstorming, managing meetings and keeping them on track, resolving conflict, and resolving problems are part of facilitation techniques. These techniques are used by facilitator.

 

Output:

Project management plan is main output of this process. It is a formal approved document. Table above shows components of that.

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