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Project Integration management

Project Integration management

Project integration management

Project integration management

Project Integration management is main responsibility of project manager. Here project manager has to do high level of project work and balancing between different processes.

[box] As per PMBOK®

“Project Integration management includes the process and activities need to be identify, define, combine, unify and coordinate the various process and project management activities within the project management process groups.”[/box]

Figure given Below shows project integration management processes and their respective process groups

Project integration management Process group (done during )
Develop project charter Initiating
Develop project management plan Planning
Direct &manage project work Executing
Monitor  & control project work Monitoring and controlling
Perform integration change control Monitoring and controlling
Close project or phase Closing


Let’s have better understanding for each process of integration management.

Develop Project Charter:

This is very first part of integration management.

Develop Project Charter

1.       Project Statement of work

2.       Business case

3.       Agreements

4.       Enterprise environmental factors

5.       Organizational process assets

 Tool  and Techniques

1.   Expert judgement

2.   facilitation techniques


1.       Project charter



[box]As per PMBOK®

“Develop project Charter is the process of developing a document that formally authorize a project or a phase and documenting initial requirement that satisfy the stakeholder need and expectation. ”[/box]

Project charter should be developed by project sponsor, Customer, PMO or they can delegate duty to Project manager.

Project Manager is assigned in this process.

It formally authorizes the project.

Now let’s have a look on input, tool & technique and outputs of project charter


Project statement of work:

[box]As per PMBOK®

“The statement of work (SOW) is a narrative description of product or a services to be delivered by project.” [/box]

The project statement of work contains

  • Business need
  • Product description
  • Strategic plan

Business case:

Business case provides necessary information from business point of view whether project is feasible or not.

Business case is created based on one of following points

  1. Market demand
  2. Organizational need
  3. Customer request
  4. Technological advance
  5. Legal requirement
  6. Ecological impact
  7. Social need


When working for external customer the contract is used as an input.

Enterprise environmental factors:

Enterprise environmental factors that can affect the development of project charter.That can be

  1. Government & industry standards
  2. Organizational infrastructure
  3. Marketplace condition
  4. Environment of project

Organization Process assets:

The organizational process assets that can effect development of project charter process may contain Organization standard process, Templates, Historical information and lesson learned and knowledge base.

Tool & Techniques

  1. Expert judgement

Expert judgement technique is used in every integration management process.

In this judgement is provided based on expertise by expert person of their fields.

They can be individuals, subject matter expert (SME), Consultant, stakeholder or group(s).


  1. Facilitation techniques

Brainstorming, managing meetings and keeping them on track, resolving conflict, and resolving problems are part of facilitation techniques. These techniques are used by facilitator.


  1. Project Charter

Project Charter is final outcome of develop project process. It provides summary of project.

Project Charter contains following things

  1. Project proposal or justification
  2. Summary budget
  3. Summary milestone
  4. High level or requirements
  5. High level of project risks
  6. Measurable success criteria
  7. Assigned project manager.

Project selection methods

Project selection methods

Project selection methodsThere are various project selection methods. They are divided in two categories

  1. Benefit measurement method
    • Murder board
    • Scoring model
    • Peer review
    • Economic model
  2. Constrained optimization method (Mathematical )
  • Linear programming
  • Dynamic programming
  • Integer programming
  • Multi-objective programming

Let’s have some introduction of  different project selection methods.

Benefit cost ration (BCR):

It is a ratio of benefit over cost. If the Value of benefit cost ration (BCR) is grater then 1 (one) it is good.

Example 1: If project one is having BCR ratio of 1.9 and project two is having BCR ration of 2.2.Which project you will you choose?


Project two as it has a greater BCR Value than project one.

Example 2:

If you expect cost of project is $90,000 and you expect to gain $1,80,000 from complete project. Calculate BCR for that.


Benefit cost ratio (BCR): benefit over cost= benefit/cost

Here benefit is $1,80,000 and cost is $90,000

So BCR= 180000/90000=2


Internal rate of return (IRR) :

It means project’s return as an interest rate. Bigger internal rate of return (IRR) is always better.

Example: You have two projects, Project one has IRR of 10% and project two has IRR or 20%. Which one will you choose?


Project two as it has bigger IRR(20%) than project one (10%).


Present value (PV) & Net Present value (NPV) :

present value means current value today of future cash flow. You can calculate with the help of

PV=FV/ (1+r) n


PV= Present value

FV= future value

R= rate of return

N=number of time period.

Bigger PV or NPV is better.

Example: You have two projects. Project one has NPV of $90,000 and project two has NPV of $60,000. Which one you are going to choose from those?


Project one as it has greater NPV.

Opportunity cost:

It means selecting one project over another by giving up opportunity. Smaller opportunity cost is better for project selection.


If you have two projects project one has NPV of $38000 and project two has NPV of $90000.What is opportunity cost for selecting project two.

Solution: $38000 is opportunity cost.

Payback period:

It measure time that how long it will take to get an investment back from project.

Example: You have two projects project one have payback period of 3 months and project two has payback period of 6 months. Which one you choose?

Solution: It is project one as it has less payback period.

Return on investment (ROI):

It shows how much percentage you make by investing in project. Bigger ROI is always better.

Returned on individual capital (ROIC):

It shows how money is used in invested project. We display this as a percentage.

ROIC= Net income/total investment

Economic value added (EVA):

It represent how much value a project has truly created for its stakeholders. In other words we can say whether project returns to the company more value than its cost.

project management plan

project management plan


Project management plan is master plan for project. It is developed once project charter is approved.

[box] “Develop project management plan is process of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate and coordinate all subsidiary plans. The project management plan define how the project is executed, monitored & controlled and closed.”[/box]

It integrates all the knowledge area. It also include baseline of project. Project baseline once defined can only be change through perform integrated change control process.

To develop successful project plan one should have following skills.

  • Negotiation
  • Leadership
  • Active listing
  • Brainstorming
  • Communication skills
  • Conflict resolution


Develop project Management plan

·         Project Charter

·         Output from planning process

·         Enterprise environment factor

·         Organizational process assets

Tool & Techniques

·         Expert judgement

·         Facilitation techniques


·         Project Management plan




Project Charter: Please click here to see more about project charter.

Output from planning process:

Information from other planning processes help to develop project  plan.

Table below shows various planning process

Scope management plan
Requirement management plan
Project scope statement
Scope baseline
Schedule management plan
Schedule baseline
Cost management plan
Cost performance baseline
Quality management plan
Process improvement plan
Human resource plan
Communication management plan
Risk management plan
Procurement management plan
Stakeholder management plan


Enterprise environment factors: Please click here to see more about Enterprise environment factors.

Organizational process assets: Please click here to see more about Organizational process assets.


Tools and Technique:


Expert judgement

Expert judgement technique is used in every integration management process. In this judgement provided based on expertise by expert person of their fields. They can be individuals, subject matter expert (SME), Consultant, stakeholder or group(s).


Facilitation techniques

Brainstorming, managing meetings and keeping them on track, resolving conflict, and resolving problems are part of facilitation techniques. These techniques are used by facilitator.



Project management plan is main output of this process. It is a formal approved document. Table above shows components of that.

Project Management Process

Project Management Process

Project Management Process

Project Management Process

This article is going to brief about Project Management Process. You are going to find word “process” more frequently during study of PMP exam. It is most important word for project management professional (PMP) exam.

Process is combination of input, tool& technique and output. You are going to manage your project with help of different processes.

Input: This is known as an entry point of process. It can be internal or external or an outcome of a other process, which can be used as an input.


Tool can be anything like software for development or management, templates.


Technique is a systematic way to solve the problem.


It is final outcome of a process which can be product, result or a service.

Project Management Institute (PMI) defines 47 processes and 5 Process groups. Each process  belongs to one of the five process group.

Here is list of five process group

  1. Initiating processes
  2. Planning processes
  3. Executing processes
  4. Monitoring and controlling processes
  5. Closing processes

Apart from that process  also belongs to one of ten knowledge area which is defined by Project Management Institute (PMI).

Here is list of ten knowledge areas

  1. Project Integration Management
  2. Project Scope Management
  3. Project Time management
  4. Project Cost Management
  5. Project Quality Management
  6. Project Human Resource Management
  7. Project Communication Management
  8. Project Risk Management
  9. Project Procurement Management
  10. Project Stakeholder Management


Here is the list of 47 Processes with their mapping with process group and knowledge areas


Process group/knowledge area Initiating (2) Planning(24) Executing (8) Monitoring and controlling (11) Closing (2)
Integration (6) Develop Project Charter Develop Project Management Plan Direct and Manage Project Work
  • Monitor and Control Project Work
  • Perform Integrated Change Control
Close Project or Phase
Scope (6)
  • Plan Scope Management
  • Collect Requirements
  • Define Scope
  • Create WBS
  • Validate Scope
  • Control Scope
Time (7)
    • Plan Schedule Management
    • Define Activities
    • Sequence Activities
    • Estimate Activity  Resources
    • Estimate Activity Durations
    • Develop Schedule
Control Schedule
Cost (4)
  • Plan Cost Management
  • Estimate Costs
  • Determine Budget
Control Cost
Quality (3) Plan Quality Management Perform Quality Assurance Control Quality
Human Resource (4) Plan HR Management
  • Acquire Project Team
  • Develop Project Team
  • Manage Project Team
Communication (3) Plan Communications Management Manage Communications Control Communications
Risk (6)
  • Plan Risk Management
  • Identify Risks
  • Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
  • Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
  • Plan Risk Response
Control Risks
Procurement (4) Plan Procurement Management Conduct Procurements Control Procurements Close Procurements
Stakeholder (4) Identify Stakeholders Plan Stakeholder Management Manage Stakeholder Engagement Control Stakeholder Engagement