In continues series of project management basics, in this article going to learn about different type or organizations and various project management roles. To understand project role first we need to know well about different type of organizations.
In this type of organization project is performed under functional department. This kind of organization structure is very common .Here project team member are not dedicated to project they are loaned from functional departments.
These organization have experts by functions.
Easy resources scheduling.
Project manager having very less authority towards a project.
Projects have lower priority.
It’s a hybrid type of organization in that project manager share responsibility with functional manager for project resources, priorities.
This type of organization can be divided in weak matrix, balanced matrix and strong matrix organization
They have well managed project as well as experts and specialists.
Resources have to report to both project and functional manager.
Higher chances of conflicts between Project Manager and Functional manager.
This kind of organization is separate from functional department. The organization is designed according to the project not based on functional department.
Project manager is fully responsible for project and its outcome.
Team is highly committed to project.
Easy and smooth communication.
Project team belongs to project not to functional department.
There is no home for team members once project is over.
Note: for more detail about organization types and their comparison see my upcoming articles.
Now let’s have a look at different project management roles. It is very important to know difference between various project roles for PMP,CAPM and other project management exam point of view. Additionally it also helps you to work more efficiently in organization if you understands different roles and their responsibilities.
He is the person who is completely responsible for all project activities and results of project. They found in matrix and projectized organization. Project manager should not escalate any project related issue or problem to someone else.
Weak matrix or functional organization does not have role for project manager. They have role called project coordinator. This role have less authority then project manager. This role is not allowed to make budget decision but have little authority to reassign resources.
This is weakest role in project management. Project expeditor only make sure that things complete on time. This role has no formal authority. This kind of role is found in functional organization.
Person who is involved or affected by project in either positively or negatively know as a stakeholder.
The person who is paying all expenses of project. Sponsor may be from organization itself (internal) or external to the organization. Sponsor and customer may or may not be same.
Program manager is responsible for program. Program manager manages project and programs at higher level than project manager.
Functional manager is also known as a line manager. He actually manages group or department that actually perform a service or create a product.
Project management plan is master plan for project. It is developed once project charter is approved.[box] “Develop project management plan is process of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate and coordinate all subsidiary plans. The project management plan define how the project is executed, monitored & controlled and closed.”[/box]
It integrates all the knowledge area. It also include baseline of project. Project baseline once defined can only be change through perform integrated change control process.
To develop successful project plan one should have following skills.
|Develop project Management plan|
· Project Charter
· Output from planning process
· Enterprise environment factor
· Organizational process assets
|Tool & Techniques
· Expert judgement
· Facilitation techniques
· Project Management plan
Output from planning process:
Information from other planning processes help to develop project plan.
Table below shows various planning process
|Scope management plan|
|Requirement management plan|
|Project scope statement|
|Schedule management plan|
|Cost management plan|
|Cost performance baseline|
|Quality management plan|
|Process improvement plan|
|Human resource plan|
|Communication management plan|
|Risk management plan|
|Procurement management plan|
|Stakeholder management plan|
Enterprise environment factors: Please click here to see more about Enterprise environment factors.
Organizational process assets: Please click here to see more about Organizational process assets.
Tools and Technique:
Expert judgement technique is used in every integration management process. In this judgement provided based on expertise by expert person of their fields. They can be individuals, subject matter expert (SME), Consultant, stakeholder or group(s).
Brainstorming, managing meetings and keeping them on track, resolving conflict, and resolving problems are part of facilitation techniques. These techniques are used by facilitator.
Project management plan is main output of this process. It is a formal approved document. Table above shows components of that.